Cold finished (hard)
Tubes do not undergo heat treatment following the final cold forming and,
thus, have a rather high resistance to deformation
Cold finished (Soft)
The final heat treatment is followed by cold drawing involving limited deformation.
Appropriate further processing allows a certain degree of cold forming (e.g. bending, expanding)
最后热处理之后进行小变形量的冷加工, 对钢管再加工时允许有限的冷变形(例如: 弯曲, 扩口)
Cold finished and stress-relieved
Heat treatment is applied following the last cold forming process.
Subject to appropriate processing conditions,
the increase in the residual stresses involved enables both forming and machining to a certain degree.
The last Cold forming process is followed by annealing in a controlled atmosphere.
The last cold forming process is followed by annealing above the upper
transformation point in a controlled atmosphere.